„They are now always two and two/
When one thing takes the outer place/
the other one drives to the shaft/”
... so writes Bessler in AP 81.
Now that the driving of the flying weights has been clarified in principle,
next step is to work out the mechanics, especially the large gear ratio.
The transmission is done here by the yellow levers.
The green lever can only move slightly in its oblong
hole. In the picture the upper weight is inside
and the yellow mechanism (lever and rope)
holds the green lever up.
When the stampfer engages, the green lever is pushed
downwards, the yellow lever swivels to the right
and so accelerates the flying weight outwards.
The two yellow levers are in principle the economy
version of a scissor mechanism.
With the exception of the fulcrum previously named A
all the forces have an accelerating effect
on the wheel.
Initially, both weights have to start moving and
even be lifted. This is exactly where the stamper
mechanism delivers the greatest force.
In the middle of the swinging movement, the
power requirement decreases. The lower weight
accelerates due to pirouette effect and the
upper becomes subject of centrifugal force.
That’s the time when the stamper begins to lift.
Then, however, the power requirement increases
again, when the upper weight on the outside
wants to slow down, but has to speed up.
In this case the stamper remains active until the
flying weight has reached its final position.
As already known from earlier simulations, Algodoo has problems with such tasks.
The gif animation could only be created at very slow speed and minimised masses.
The Algodoo scene used for the animation can be downloaded
The first two wheels had three stampers
and thus probably six flying weights.
The weights at 6 o’clock and 12 o’clock here are
before the swing in and swing out respectively.
One can see that the weights at 2 o’clock
and at 4 o’clock create an imbalance and
thus a torque in the direction of rotation.
According to previous considerations the force
for swinging in and out comes for the most part
from the reaction force when the stamper
The imbalance at 2 and 4 o’clock therefore
only has to generate approx. 20 to 30 percent
more torque than would be necessary for the
pure stamper lifting.
In principle, there is only an optimisation task
and the arrangement of the control mechanism
in the axle.
The pin to lever mechanism in the axle looks more difficult at first than it actually is
when you approach it three-dimensionally.
You can even move the pivot point A into the axle in such a way that it no longer
generates any backward momentum - MT69 says hello.
It is therefore only necessary to find stiff and torsion-free materials,
and to place the hanging and pivot points at the right places.
With today’s technology this is certainly no problem,
but in Besslers time it was a challenge and an absolutely admirable achievement.
next page: the first wheels